Calcium hydroxide is a multipurpose agent, and there have been an increasing Some of its indications include inter-appointment intracanal medicaments. role of calcium hydroxide in the field of endodontics, focusing on its droxide can be used effectively as intracanal medicament, root canal. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has been widely used as an intracanal medicament for endodontic retreatment, but very few studies used both Ca(OH)2 and 1%.

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However, cells in a starvation phase were the most resistant and were not totally eliminated during a minute test period.

How to cite this article: The first part of this review details the characteristics of Ca OH 2 and summarizes the results of in vitro studies related to its antimicrobial effect. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review

By contrast, several studies have attested to the ineffectiveness of Ca Hydroxife 2 in eliminating bacterial cells. Comparative evaluation of pH and antibacterial effect of various calcium hydroxide combinations on E. Open in a separate window. Antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide pastes on Enterococcus faecalis cultivated in root canal systems.

Effect of different irrigation solutions and calcium hydroxide on bacterial LPS.

The antimicrobial efficiency of aqueous solutions of calcium hydroxide on Streptococcus mutansStreptococcus faecalis and Candida albicansin vitro. Infected dentin models – bovine teeth InHaapasalo and Orstavik introduced an in vitro model for a dentinal tubule infection of the root canal. In summary of the medicamfnt part of this review, the antimicrobial effect of Ca OH 2 is related to the hydroxyl ions released in an aqueous environment, which affects cytoplasmic membranes, proteins, and the DNA of microorganisms.

Studies reporting antimicrobial effect of Ca OH 2 using infected dentin models with human teeth. A series of studies demonstrated the antimicrobial effect of Ca OH 2 Table 1.


In the studies of Podbielski et al.

In a study on dogs’ teeth, Tanomaru et al. Calcium hydroxide; chitosan; cone beam computed tomography; ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; intracanal medicament; retrieval; ultrasonics. Footnotes No potential conflict of interest relevant to this article was reported.

This model enabled an evaluation of the infection status at different depths of the dentinal tubules. Intracanal medicaments may perform these roles by remaining in the root canal between treatment appointments.

The pH gradient of the cytoplasmic membrane is altered by the high concentration of hydroxyl ions from calcium hydroxide acting on the proteins of the membrane protein denaturation. The first part of this review will detail the characteristics of Ca OH 2 and summarize the results of in vitro studies related to its antimicrobial effect. Introduction Microorganisms are the cause of apical inflammatory lesions, and the goal of endodontic treatment is the prevention and control of pulpal and periradicular infections.

A complete antimicrobial effect was observed after 48 h with both tests, irrespective of the Ca OH 2 paste vehicle. Disinfection by calcium hydroxide pastes of dentinal tubules infected with two obligate and one facultative anaerobic bacteria.

Chemical and antimicrobial properties intraxanal calcium hydroxide mixed with irrigating solutions. Dentin has the buffering property of alkaline substances because of ihtracanal proton donors in the hydrated layer of the hydroxyapatite. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of calcium hydroxide combined with chlorhexidine gel used as intracanal medicament.

Antimicrobial Activity of Calcium Hydroxide in Endodontics: A Review

The high pH of Ca OH 2 alters the integrity of the cytoplasmic membrane by clcium of chemical injury to the organic components and transport of nutrients or by means of the destruction of phospholipids or unsaturated fatty acids of the cytoplasmic membrane during the peroxidation process, which is a saponification reaction. Dentinal tubule disinfection using three calcium hydroxide formulations. The antibacterial effect of camphorated paramonochlorophenol, camphorated phenol and calcium hydroxide in the treatment of infected root canals.


Calcium hydroxide is a white odorless powder with the formula Ca OH 2. Ca OH 2 mixed with chlorhexidine was ineffective in disinfecting dentine even after 1 week of exposure. Effect of calcium hydroxide on bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Biofilm susceptibility to antimicrobials. Cytotoxicity versus antibacterial activity of some antiseptics in vitro.

In two in vivo studies, Nelson-Filho et al. Molecular- and culture-based comparison of the effects of antimicrobial agents on bacterial survival in infected dentinal tubules. Calcium hydroxide Ca OH 2 has been widely used in endodontics as an intracanal medicament to eliminate the remaining microorganisms after chemomechanical preparation. Cleaning and shaping of root canals of 28 mandibular premolar was done and canals were filled either with Medicxment or Calciumm OH 2 mixed with distilled water.

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. It dissociates into calcium and hydroxyl ions on contact with an aqueous solution, and the main actions of Ca OH 2 are attributed to the effect of these ions on vital tissues, such as inducing hard tissue deposition and being antibacterial. In a study to evaluate the effect of electrophoretically activated Ca OH 2 on bacterial viability in dentinal tubules, Lin et al.

J Appl Oral Sci. The results showed that NaOCl, hydrogen peroxide, and chlorhexidine digluconate were effective against C. Calcium ion diffusion from calcium hydroxide-containing materials in endodontically-treated teeth: Antimicrobial evaluation of calcium hydroxide in infected dentinal tubules. Antimicrobial analysis of different root canal filling pastes used in pediatric dentistry by two experimental methods.

In vitro study of the indirect action of calcium hydroxide on the anaerobic flora of the root canal.