This study attempts to give as complete as possible a description of two extinct Saivite sects-the Kapalikas and the Kalamukhas. Since the connotations of the. Kapalika and Kalamukha, members of either of two groups of Shaivite (devotees of Shiva) ascetics, most prominent in India from the 8th through the 13th century. Kapalikas, Kalamukhas. Identifier TheKapalikasAndKalamukhasTwoLostSaiviteSectsDLorenzenDelhi Identifier-ark ark://t23b9rp

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Most of these are communion rituals in which the worshipper is united with divinity through food, drink, sex, or mental ecstasy. There is also some evidence that they occasionally practised various forms of self-mutilation such as cutting flesh from their own bodies for sacrificial oblations. According to tradition, Mahendra, the royal author of MattavUdsa, was converted from Jainism to Saivism by the famous Tamil ndyagdr, Appar.

Given the pervasive tantric motif of the identity or con- junction of opposites,23 the relation between the penance of the law books and the vow of the Kapalikas is not inexplicable. The name Kalamukha, sometimes spelt Kalamukha, may refer to a practice of marking their foreheads with a black streak. Sanskrit words are transliterated according to the system now used by most Indologists.

Here am I, sir— Subsisting on alms given without asking for them and calmed by control over the five senses. Drawn by his magical power siddhishe ran away with him to a cave on the bank of the Ganga.

The Kapalikas And Kalamukhas Two Lost Saivite Sects D Lorenzen Delhi 1991

In his befuzzlement Satyasoma calls Deva- soma Somadeva and is accused by her of having another mistress. A mythological origin for the Kapalikas is given in the Goraksa-siddhanta-samgrahawhich tells of an occassion upon which the 24 avatars of Vishnu became intoxicated with wine.


ParabSiva is not invited because he wears a necklace of skulls. Both connect these ascetics with the god Siva in his Kapalin or Kapales- vara form. Altogether, the conditions set for this form of penance bear a striking resemblance to the prototypical Kapalika, who is described as having lived in forests, wearing animal skins and carrying skulls.

Suddenly a spirit purusa rose up from a chasm in the earth. Many references to these ascetics take the form of poetic meta- phors or similes.

Full text of “The Kapalikas And Kalamukhas”

The Malta- vildsa is set in Kanci, the capital of Mahendra. According to the GSS p. He had made a kwlamukhas for oblations and a ritual circle maif4ala in which he worshipped a supine corpse. The records are slightly inconsistent about the hierarchy of the three parts of the organisation. This sutra prescribes the penance for one who has killed a Brahmana, a Brahmahan: In the bliss of sexual union the human pair kkapalikas the divine bliss of Siva and Sakti.

This line of ascetics has been discussed at some length by J. The leading character in the drama is a Kapalin ascetic who lives at the temple of Ekambira- natha near the capital. This article began as an original work prepared for New World Encyclopedia and is provided to the public according to the terms of the New World Encyclopedia: This was the start of a conquest of the four quarters digvijaya.

Kapalika and Kalamukha | Hindu ascetics |

Several technica 1 kapalikss must be mentioned. Sastri, A History of South India, p. The resistance of both is soon shipwrecked on the shore of lust. Although little reliance can be placed on the specific details of these statements— the authors were all opponents of the Kapalikas — it is difficult to doubt that the Kapalikas practised human sacrifice.

It is doubtful, however, whether any of the three kallamukhas had its own exclusive laity. By far my greatest debt of gratitude is owed to my mentor. This is kapali,as ultimate truth. He manifested the disease of talking continually about the nine treasures of Kubera and became very windy on the subject of alchemy He who is performing any of those penances must carry on his stick the skull of the person slain, like a flag.


Young kapalkkas were burning themselves with lamps to propitiate the Mothers [Matrkas]. Part of a series on. After that master of the Bhairavdgamas had thus meditated, the skull was immediately filled with liquor surd.

anr Aiyangar, Manimekhalai in Its Historical Setting, p. Vdmamdrg, a modern tantric manual in Hindi and Sanskrit by V. In accordance with this theory, many temples formerly run by Kalamukhas are now run by the Virasaivas. His disciple, an ornament to the Lakula-samaya, was Rudrabharana. We have not been able to locate Bloomfield’s source. I cannot dare to ask iit.

Kapalika and Kalamukha

Another Buddhist connection is found in the vernacular songs caryds of the Sahajiya Buddhist saint Kanhapada. Having become burdened 2SSee above, pp.

Why is not Kapalin worshipped by you? This name is also found in M. The kaaplikas was filled with compassion and instructed Padmapada and his other disciples to convert the repentant heretics.

From quite early times Gujarat has been a centre of Jain influence, and all these beliefs denve their original impetus more from Jainism than Hinduism. He orders them to sit and takes up a vessel of liquor.