Calvinism. Six Stone-lectures. Lectures on the L.P. Stone-foundation, Princeton . Calvinism, as the only decisive, lawful, and consistent defence for Protestant. The Stone Lectures on Calvinism. by Abraham Kuyper. CALVINISM. Six Lectures Delivered in the Theological Seminary at Princeton. by. Index. The Stone Lectures are an annual series at Princeton Theological Seminary. Kuyper’s lectures, gathered here, are an outline of his Calvinist theology and its.
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He established the Reformed Churches in the Netherlandswhich upon its foundation became the second largest Reformed denomination in the country behind the state-supported Dutch Reformed Church. In religious affairs, he sought to adapt the Dutch Reformed Church to challenges posed by the loss of state financial aid and by increasing religious pluralism in the wake of splits that the church had undergone in the 19th century, rising Dutch nationalism, and the Arminian religious revivals of his day which denied predestination.
He promoted pillarisationthe social expression of the anti-thesis in public life, whereby ProtestantCatholic and secular elements each had their own independent schools, universities and social organisations.
Abraham Kuijper was born on 29 October in MaassluisNetherlands. Kuijper was home-schooled by his father. The boy received no formal primary educationbut received secondary education at the Gymnasium of Leiden.
Inhe graduated from the Gymnasium and began to study literaturephilosophy and theology at Leiden University. He received his propaedeuse in literature insumma cum laudeand in philosophy inalso summa cum laude.
He also took classes in ArabicArmenian and physics. During his studies Kuyper was a member of the modern tendency within the Dutch Reformed Church. In Mayhe was declared eligible for the ministry and he accepted a call to become minister for the Dutch Reformed Church for the town of Beesd. In the same year he married Johanna Hendrika Schaay — They would have five sons and three daughters.
In he began corresponding with the anti-revolutionary MP Guillaume Groen van Prinstererwho heavily influenced his political and theological views see below. Aroundhe began to sympathise with the orthodox tendency within the Dutch Reformed Church. He was inspired by the robust reformed faith of Pietje Balthus, a single woman in her early 30s, the daughter of a miller.
InKuyper was asked to become minister for the parish in Utrecht and he left Beesd. In he was asked to come to Amsterdam. In he began to write for the De Heraut The Herald. Inhe founded his own paper, De Standaard The Standard. This paper would lay the foundation for the network of Reformed organisation, the Reformed pillarwhich Kuyper would found. InKuyper led an exodus from the Dutch Reformed Church. He grieved the loss of Reformed distinctives within this State Church, which no longer required office bearers to agree to the Reformed standards which had once been foundational.
Kuyper and the consistory of Amsterdam insisted that both ministers and church members subscribe to the Reformed confessions. This was appealed to Classis, and Kuyper, along with about 80 members of the Amsterdam consistory, were suspended in Dec. This was appealed to the provincial synod, which upheld the ruling in a 1 July ruling. Refusing to accept his suspension, Kuyper preached to his followers in an auditorium on Sunday, 11 July Because of their deep sorrow at the state of the Dutch Reformed Church, the group called itself the Doleantie grieving ones.
Bythe Doleantie churches had over congregations,members, and about 80 ministers.
Kuyper, stonf at first antagonistic towards themsoon began to seek union with the churches of the Secession ofthe Christelijke Gereformeerde Kerken Christian Reformed Church.
These churches had earlier broken off from the Dutch Reformed Church. This union kyyper effected inand the Gereformeerde Kerken in Nederland Reformed Churches in the Netherlands was formed. He vigorously ridiculed modernism in theology as a new-fangled fad based on a superficial view of reality.
He argued that modernism missed the reality of God, of prayer, of sin, and of the church. He said modernism would eventually prove as useless as ‘A Squeezed Out Lemon Peel,’ while traditional religious truths would survive. InKuyper stood as candidate in the general election for parliament for calvinim constituency of Goudabut he was defeated by the incumbent member of parliament, the conservative Jonkheer Willem Maurits de Brauw.
When De Valvinism died the next year, Kuyper stood again in the by-election for the same district. This time he was elected to parliament, defeating the liberal candidate Herman Verners van cslvinism Loeff. Kuyper subsequently moved to The Haguewithout telling his friends in Amsterdam. In parliament he showed a particular kuyoer in education, especially the equal ztone of public and religious schools. In this programme he formulated the principle of antithesisthe conflict between the religious Reformed and Catholics and non-religious.
Inhe left parliament because of problems with his health, suffering from overexertion. InKuyper returned to politics, he led the petition against a new law on educationwhich would further disadvantage religious schools.
This was an important impetus for the foundation of the Anti-Revolutionary Party ARP inof which Kuyper would be chairman between and He would be the undisputed leader of the party between and His followers gave him the nickname “Abraham de Geweldige” Abraham the Great. Inhe founded the Free University in Amsterdam and he was made professor of Theology there. He also served as its first rector magnificus. Inhe also became professor of literature.
Inhe left the Dutch Reformed Church, with a large group of followers.
The parish in Amsterdam was made independent of the church, and kept their own building. Between andthey would be called the Dolerendenthose with grievances. Inthose Dolerenden founded a new denomination called The Reformed Churches in the Netherlands after merging with other orthodox Reformed people who had seceded from the Dutch Reformed Church in In the general election ofKuyper was re-elected to the House of Representatives for the district of Sliedrecht.
He defeated the liberal Van Haaften and the anti-takkian anti-revolutionary Beelaerts van Blokland. He also ran as a candidate in Dordrecht and Amsterdambut was defeated there.
In the election he joined the so-called Takkians, in a conflict between the liberal minister Tak, and a majority House of Representatives. Tak wanted to reform the census-suffragebut a majority in parliament rejected his proposal. Kuyper favoured the legislation because he expected the enfranchised lower class voters would favour his party.
This orientation towards the lower classes gave him the nickname “The bellringer of the common people” klokkeluider van de kleine luyden.
His position on suffrage also led to a conflict within the ARP: The authoritarian leadership of Kuyper also played an important role in this conflict.
Abraham Kuyper, Calvinism. Six Stone-lectures I
Lohman opposed party discipline and wanted MPs to make up their own mind, while Kuyper favoured strong leadership. After the elections Kuyper became chair of the parliamentary caucus of the ARP.
In his second term as MP he concentrated on more issues than education, like suffragelabourand foreign policy. In foreign affairs especially the Second Boer War was of particular interest to him, in the conflict between the Dutch-speaking reformed farmers and the English-speaking Anglicans he sided with the Boers, and heavily opposed the English.
InKuyper voted against the new suffrage law of Van Houtenbecause according to Kuyper the reforms did not go far enough. In the electionsKuyper competed in ZuidhornSliedrecht and Amsterdam. He was defeated by liberals in Zuidhorn and Amsterdam, but he defeated the liberal Wisboom in Sliedrecht. In Amsterdam he was defeated by Johannes Tak van Poortvliet. As an MP, Kuyper kept his job as journalist, and he even became chair of the Dutch Circle of Journalists in ; when he left in he was made honorary president.
In the same year, at the invitation of B. WarfieldKuyper delivered the Stone Lectures at Princeton Seminarywhich was his first widespread exposure to a North American audience.
These lectures were given 10—11 October 14 and 19—21 in He also received an calvjnism doctorate in law there. In the electionsKuyper was re-elected in Sliedrecht, defeating the liberal De Klerk. In Amsterdam he was defeated again, now by the freethinking liberal Nolting. He did not take his seat in parliament however but was instead appointed formateur and later prime minister of the Dutch cabinet.
He also served as minister of Home Affairs. He originally wanted to become minister of labour and enterprise, caalvinism neither Mackay or Heemskerkprominent anti-revolutionaries, wanted to become minister of Home Affairs, forcing him to take the portfolio. During his time as prime minister he showed a strong leadership style: The portfolio of home affairs at the time was very broad: The railway strike was one of the decisive issues for his cabinet.
Kuyper produced several particularly harsh laws to end the strikes the so-called “worgwetten”, strangling lawsand pushed them through parliament.
He also proposed legislation to improve working conditions ; however only those on fishing and harbour construction passed through parliament. In xalvinism Kuyper changed several education laws to improve the financial situation of religious schools. His law on higher education, which would make the diplomas of faith-based universities equal to that of the public universities, stoe defeated in the Senate.
Consequently, Kuyper dissolved the Senate and, after a new one was elected, the legislation was accepted. He was also heavily involved in foreign policy, giving him the nickname “Minister of Foreign Travels”. Inhis ARP lost the elections and was confined to opposition. Between andKuyper made a grand tour around the Mediterranean.
InKuyper became honorary doctor at the Delft University of Technology. Inhe was re-elected chair of the ARP, a post which he would hold to his death in InKuyper wanted cxlvinism return to parliament. In a by-election in Sneek he needed the support of the local CHU.
They refused him support. This led to a personal conflict between Kuyper and De Savorin Lohman. InKuyper received the honorary title of minister of state. He was elected to the House of Representatives for the district of Ommen in sgone by-elections in the same year, defeating the liberal De Meester.